California Literary Review

The Strange World of Quantum Entanglement

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March 30th, 2007 at 2:47 am

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Brian Clegg

Brian Clegg received a physics degree from Cambridge University and is the author of numerous books and articles on the history of science. His most recent book is The God Effect : Quantum Entanglement, Science’s Strangest Phenomenon.

What you write in your book about entanglement is so startling, it’s hard to believe. Let’s start with a definition. What is quantum entanglement?
Entanglement is a strange feature of quantum physics, the science of the very small. It’s possible to link together two quantum particles — photons of light or atoms, for example — in a special way that makes them effectively two parts of the same entity. You can then separate them as far as you like, and a change in one is instantly reflected in the other. This odd, faster than light link, is a fundamental aspect of quantum science. Erwin Schrödinger, who came up with the name “entanglement” called it “the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics.” Entanglement is fascinating in its own right, but what makes it really special are dramatic practical applications that have become apparent in the last few years.
Is it possible that entangled particles are not actually in immediate communication, but are simply programmed to behave in the same way? Much like twins separated at birth who live eerily similar lives — assume the same professions, marry similar spouses, etc.
This is an obvious possibility. John Bell, who devised a lot of the theory for testing the existence of entanglement, covered it in a paper called “Bertlmann’s Socks and the Nature of Reality.” Reinhold Bertlmann, a colleague of Bell’s, always wore socks of different colors. Bell pointed out that, if you saw one of Bertlmann’s feet coming around the corner of a building and it had a pink sock on, you would instantly know the other sock wasn’t pink, even though you had never seen it. The color difference was programmed in when Bertlmann put his socks on. But the quantum world is very different. If you take some property of a particle, the equivalent of color, say the spin of an electron, it doesn’t have the value pre-programmed. It has a range of probabilities as to what the answer might be, but until you actually measure it, there is no fixed value. What happens with a pair of entangled electrons is you measure the spin of one. Until that moment, neither of them had a spin with a fixed value. But the instant you take the measurement on one, the other immediately fixes its spin (say to the opposite value). These “quantum socks” were every possible color until you looked at one. Only then did it become pink, and the other instantly took on another color.
You write that Einstein among other scientists could not accept quantum entanglement. It seems to throw out the whole notion of cause and effect. How confident are physicists that quantum entanglement exists and what are the implications for science and the scientific method?
Einstein had problems with the whole of quantum physics — which is ironic, as it was based on his Nobel Prize winning paper on the photoelectric effect. What he didn’t like was the way quantum particles don’t have fixed values for their properties until they are observed — he couldn’t relate to a universe where probability ruled. That’s why he famously said that God doesn’t play dice. I think an even better quote, less well known, was when he wrote: “I find the idea quite intolerable that an electron exposed to radiation should choose of its own free will, not only its moment to jump off, but also its direction. In that case, I would rather be a cobbler, or even an employee in a gaming house, than a physicist.” Einstein believed that underneath these probabilities were fixed, hidden realities we just couldn’t see. That was why he dreamed up the idea of entanglement in 1935. It was to show that either quantum theory was incomplete, because it said there was no hidden information, or it was possible to instantly influence something at a distance. As that seemed incredible, he thought it showed that quantum theory was wrong.
It did take a long time to prove that entanglement truly existed. It wasn’t until the 1980s that it was clearly demonstrated. But it has been shown without doubt that this is the case. Entanglement exists, and is being used in very practical ways.
Entanglement doesn’t throw away the concept of cause and effect. But it does underline the fact that quantum particles really do only have a range of probabilities on the values of their properties rather than fixed values. And while it seems to contradict Einstein’s special relativity, which says nothing can travel faster than light, it’s more likely that entanglement challenges our ideas of what distance and time really mean. Similarly, entanglement is no challenge to the scientific method. We need to use a different kind of math, but this is still the same science.
Where do you see the first practical applications of entanglement?
The first thing most people think of, including a report produced for the Department of Defense shortly after entanglement was proved real, is being able to use it to communicate faster than light. The link of entanglement works instantaneously at any distance. So it would be amazing if it could be used to send a signal. In fact this isn’t possible. Although there is a real connection between two entangled particles, we don’t know what the information is that it’s going to send. If I measure the spin of an entangled electron, yes it communicates the value somehow to its twin — but I can’t use it. I had no idea what the spin was going to be. This is just as well, as faster than light messages travel backwards in time. If I could send a message instantly it would be received in the past, and that really would disrupt cause and effect. However, there are still real and amazing applications of entanglement. It can be used to produce unbreakable encryption. If you send each half of a set of entangled pairs to either end of a communications link, then the randomly generated but linked properties can be used as a key to encrypt information. If anyone intercepts the information it will break the entanglement, and the communication can be stopped before the eavesdropper picks up any data.
Then there are quantum computers. These are conceptual machines that can crack problems that would take an ordinary computer longer than the lifetime of the universe to solve. We already know how to program a quantum computer to do some amazing things. For instance, if I have an unsorted database with a million entries, I will typically have to try out 500,000 of these before hitting on the right one. (Try looking for a specific number, rather than a person, in the paper version of the New York telephone directory.) But using a quantum computer it only takes 1,000 attempts. Unfortunately, though, Quantum computers are almost impossible to make.
Instead of storing information in bits on silicon chips, each of which can hold 0 or 1, a quantum computer uses quantum particles like photons or atoms as the information stores. Each particle can store infinitely long numbers, but if you look at the particle, it changes the value. Entanglement means you can’t interact with these quantum bits (qubits for short) without frying your quantum memory. There are several technologies being tried to build the first, basic quantum computers, but they all rely on entanglement to get information into and around the system.
Most dramatic of all is quantum teleportation.
And for those Trekkies out there, tell us about the possibility of teleportation.
It’s more than a possibility, it has been done, but only on a very small scale. What a Star Trek transporter is supposed to do is make an exact copy of an object or a person somewhere else. There’s a fundamental problem here. Because looking at a quantum particle changes it. You can’t scan a particle, see what it looks like and make an exact copy. So it might seem that teleportation is impossible. Entanglement lets you get around this restriction. By interacting the particle with one half of an entangled pair, and then putting the other half of the pair through a special process, a bit like a logic gate in a computer, it’s possible to make an identical particle at a remote location. We can only do this because the entanglement transfers the quantum information without us ever knowing what it was. In the process, the original particle loses its properties. Teleportation isn’t copying, it effectively destroys the original.
This doesn’t mean you’ll be able to rush out and buy a transporter at Radio Shack next week. This process has been done with large molecules, similar in size to a bacterium, so it’s possible that we could teleport something living. But it won’t work with something as big as a person. You would have to scan every single molecule in the body and reassemble at the other end, which doesn’t look like it’s every going to be practical.
Maybe this isn’t so bad, though. Remember, the original is destroyed (something Star Trek glosses over). Okay, you get an identical copy, but would you be prepared to be vaporized if you knew an exact, indistinguishable copy was going to be created the other side of the world? I’m not ecstatic about flying, but by comparison it sounds a safe option.
Could entanglement prove to be the “Holy Grail” for merging scientific and mystical, religious thought?
There have certainly been people who have tried to draw this kind of conclusion, but I think they are mistaken. Entanglement is a wholly physical process. I called my book The God Effect because it has been suggested that entanglement is the working mechanism of the Higgs boson, a very special particle that gives everything its mass, and has been called the God Particle, because it’s so fundamental. But that’s just a label. It’s also true that Nobel Prize winning physicist Brian Josephson has suggested that entanglement could explain telepathy (much to the irritation of paranormal debunker James Randi), but Josephson was saying if telepathy exists, then here’s a physical mechanism that could explain it — he wasn’t indulging in mystical navel-gazing.
What entanglement (and quantum theory in general) does do is remind us is that the real world is much stranger than we imagine. That’s because the way things are in the world of the very small is totally different to large scale objects like desks and pens. We can’t rely on experience and common sense to guide us on how things are going to work at this level. And that can make some of the effects of quantum physics seem mystical. In the end, this is something similar to science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke’s observation that “any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”
  • george hants

    Hello, could anybody tell me, when two particles are entangled what happens if one of them interacts with a third particle. are all three now entangled.
    What happens if one of the entangled particles (photons)is absorbed. does the other photon disappear or is it left on its own, unentangled.

  • anonymous

    Why would ‘instant’ communication between entangled particles have to exceed the speed of light and violate special relativity? Until the communication mechanism is identified as an interaction occurring within spacetime, should such consideration exist. In fact, does this violation not definitively rule out the possibility of a classic interaction within spacetime?

  • cary

    How do particles become entangled exactly? I saw a video on youtube that suggested a form of irradiation. Then it went on to explain the vortex theory which was introduced by some guy named Robbert Moon and a bunch of Russian physicists a few years ago. I don’t know about the credibility of these guys because of the at first intellectual vids, became more of a marketing tool for some cell phone battery that never needs to be charged, suggestively, using quantum entanglement. You can check out this link here. I find it sad that the people in power only want to market and profit from this new tech and keep everyone in the dark and keep them a mindless consumer. But thats how the world works for now and I am getting off topic.
    This is a very interesting concept, I have been trying to find out as much as I can about QE in the past month. I am in school and unfortunately it takes a while for new technology to be proven and published in textbooks. Does anyone know where i can sign up for quantum entanglement 101? I just hope this tech is not used in the wrong way.

  • No1

    Since quantum teleportation exists, why not just write a letter, teleport it, and then you have sent information?

  • Stephen Ward

    Where would the world be without geeks? The geeks will inherit the world as they are the only one to understand it…

    How does the entanglement principle work with the electro magnetic principles?

    If the human mind works on this, and the atoms and things that I have no idea about are basically electric and magnetic then surely that copying say the electro-magnetic wave length of the body healing itself could be copied?
    Or using the same thing to copy weightlessness would then bombard the cells of something heavy changing the properties making it lighter.

    If so then it can be intensified and used as a magic wand to make the cells healthier. Almost like super-oxygenising the blood.

    Then the ability to copy, transmit and duplicate could influence the whole spectrum of life as we know it?

    Just a thought?

  • Bill

    To me it seems like quantum entanglement “communication” would be similar if there was a coin flipping machine that flipped a coin inside a box until a button was pressed at which time the state of heads or tails is captured, but not yet known by the observers, the coin is in a heads and tails state, wave function. Then the machine splits the coin in two, so that heads is one side and tails is on the other, and one half is shipped across the universe. When my buddy at the other end of the universe opens his box, lets say he sees a tails, then he proudly proclaims he has knowledge faster than light, instaneous, that I have heads. Big Whoop. That is not communication. Communication would be if I have an up spin particle, and the entangled is down on the other side of the universe, but I did not want up, so I changed the spin my local particle to down instead, and the particle at the other end of the universe flips up instaneously. Now we could send info back and forth because the spins would flip opposite. THAT would be spooky action at a distance. Unfortunately, the entanglement is broken when I change the spin locally of my particle. The direction of spin is determined at the creation of the entangled pair, not up or down, but OPPOSITE. Someone help me out here if I have it wrong.

  • Dik Roytman

    Telepathies in the pure state do not exist, being a by-effect of system of stabilisation of a composition of restricted group of animals. At the moment of mors the participant of group sends a signal to all terms of group is enlarges an issue and cancels losses. The group closed by a feedback to become immortal. At HS the feedback is realised differently. The dying person sees favourite and close to it people (the virtual reality is faultless), all gain the information on mors and a command on organism restoration. Losses of the term of group it is cancelled by augmentation of life expectancy of addressees.
    The program disposable – everyone, gone through clinical mors get constant access to this program. It is enough to recollect any person to cure it. Motions of arms are thus urged, but are not binding, however it generates set of simulators. They are studied by the same scientists. Effect – a zero.
    Base effect – boundless exterior memory on gravitational waves.
    By-effect of exterior memory – treatment is indifferent to distance.
    Treatment by-effect – telepathy – information interchange out of distance.
    Telepathy by-effect – clairvoyance – information interchange out of time.
    In a basis – use of the modulated gravitational waves for storage and an information transfer. Gravitational waves – a variant electromagnetic, but rate of diffusion misses. Double-reduction modulation is not obvious and can be found out only casually. Once will carry also to you. Can be.

  • anonymous

    Yes, you can teleport your letter deterministically and faithfully, if you can write your letter with a quantum pen.

  • malachikrunch

    When the interviewee says that anything traveling faster than light would be going back in time he is referencing Einsteins theory of relativity. Einstein said there is an inverse proportion between speed and light, and that if one were to reach the speed of light time would stop. Therefore if you exceed the speed of light you would be travelling back in time. Of course there is always the possibility (ever-growing in popularity) that Einstein was wrong about that. The lower speed limit for entanglement has been estimated at 10000 times the speed of light. I prefer to think that our ideas of the structure of space itself are wrong. After all, Einsteins theories are easily observed through simple experiments.

    As for the act of measuring the spin of electrons actually changing them, I think this is a bit misleading. What they mean is that these values are constantly changing and can not be predicted (yet). Whatever it was before you observed it is different than what it is after, so in a sense, the act of observing it caused the change.

  • Soul

    E=mc^2 is a proven theory, the faster you go the more mass you gain and require ever more energy to go faster, hence it is impossible to go faster than light. In a physical world and by conventional means that is.

  • SARATH KRISHNAN

    This is a really exciting phenomenon.Through this we are crossing into the borders of reality.Still a lot to go.if we can travel faster than light, the heart of reality is not so far,i hope!

    ny way thanx for the wonderful article

  • joe dart

    I read an article somewhere that described an entanglement experiment using polarized light. The entangled beam was polarised and split and when one of the beams’ plane of polarization was rotated, the other rotated too. If the article I read describes the experiment correctly, then this seems like enough to send messages by rotating the beam with some kind of zeeman effect magnets.

    Has anyone here heard of this experiemntal result?

  • http://www.myspace.com/dobermanmacleod Brad Arnold

    Terrestrial evolution ought to be considered in terms of extra terrestrial evolution in light of quantum entanglement. Frankly, the complexity we are seeing here on Earth can’t be accounted for solely by Darwinian Theory (in my humble opinion).

  • Kennard Laviers

    “As for the act of measuring the spin of electrons actually changing them, I think this is a bit misleading. What they mean is that these values are constantly changing and can not be predicted (yet). Whatever it was before you observed it is different than what it is after, so in a sense, the act of observing it caused the change.”

    To expand on this, to detect a Q particle you have to “see” it somehow. How do we observe it? By shooting it with something (photon or some other particle) and observing the effect or letting it hit another particle causing a change. The problem is there is no way to see it without changing or destroying it. For that reason, we can only guess at where Q particles are is by using some probabilistic function (maximum likelihood function I would guess.) So, in order to know the spin of a Q particle we have to kill it in the process.
    An analogy, suppose we can only see things by throwing a baseball at them, but everything we throw the baseball at is the same size or smaller then the baseball and so we can hear the collisions but whatever we hit with the ball is either knocked away, or destroyed in the process.

  • Rod Merritt

    I don’t see the quantum entangelement effect as that spooky. If the photons are traveling at the speed of light, then for them, time has stopped. Looking at the world from the viewpoint of the photons, they are at once still touching and separated. They are out of time and therefore are everywhere along their path of existence at the same time, to them anyway.

  • arnbar

    No one has commented now for approximately 10 weeks. Someone may read this later this year. My thoughts will rest in cyberspace until then, unobserved. When these ideas are observed, will my spin be identical or switched? Never mind.

    If Einstein was entitled to his intuitions about a universe based on clear laws rather then probability, can I harbor the intuition (just that) I get when 1) I read the above article and comments and 2) I look out at the cosmos and consider the “size” and “age” of it? It is the following: it seems quite conceivable that long aeons “ago” life developed elsewhere, solved the issue at hand here, and devised a system of teleportation (physical? intellectual? “spiritual?”) across the cosmos, and that in fact, the cosmos “communicates with itself” in some sense. If this could be, humans could be just entering, in the next few hundred years, say, the point of access to this “community.” Just grist for a SF plot I guess, but the idea that we are alone and destined to be that way forever is my own intolerable intellectual bugaboo.

  • James

    Perhaps particles in my brain picked up the fact that you posted about no one reading the article for some time. One thing I have never been clear on is whether or not EVERY quantum particle has an entangled partner, somewhere in the Universe? My personal theory, based on nothing at all, is that yes, all particles have an entangled partner, perhaps several. Entanglement could really explain so many things. You mentioned telepathy but what everyday, strange occurrences? On at least 3 occasions in the last 6 months or so, I randomly thought of a person I have not thought of in a long time for no reason. Within hours, sometimes minutes, I ran into that person. Coincidence? The odds of three, different, events like this are pretty low! It has been shown that plants have some sort of “sense” as measured on polygraphs. They are known to even react to negative (I’m gonna stomp that plant!) thoughts? How could this be? Once again, entanglement might explain it. I truly think it is the most exciting field of study in physics and predict that it will lead to some astonishing technology and fascinating science. I plan to buy your book soon!
    James

  • http://freeornottobe.org Harley Borgais

    Wanna see an actual photo of atoms, the first one, taken by a Nemescope? http://www.freeornottobe.org/freeornottobe/Nemescope- 1st Photo of Atoms (smaller).jpg

  • Chris wilson

    Could it be that entanglement is based on observation?
    Is it not a wave( A particle) and all possibilities can be realized
    until measured. So if a particle here(on earth) is a negative charge,
    then the other part of that particle, let’s say it is at the other end
    of the universe, is automatically positive. If you change the negative charge to a positive charge, then at the other end of the universe the particle is now negative charged. Could be that our observation of the particle here on earth,
    would effect our observation of the particle/wave at the end of the universe.
    So could it be that it is the observation that determines what is going in entanglement, not a breaking of the light speed limit?

  • rol

    If a small particle can be teleported, then it surely wouldn’t be a great feat to do the same with an electron.

    …and if one electron, then why not the output of 100 square miles of solar panels orbiting the sun?

    Limitless energy, delivered globally, at a cost so cheap it would be uneconomical to meter.

    …or has this already been copyrighted and shelved in the cabinet “Do not open until all the money has been made out of oil”

  • Jeremy

    rol, this forced entanglement requires energy I’m sure..how much I don’t know but if it takes a 15 kilojoules to send 1 kilojoules that’s not very energy efficient. This is just a perspective not a personal attack.
    cheers!

  • David Currie

    Aren’t we up to about 11 dimensions now; Time, traditional 3D space, and 7 so called ‘rolled up’ dimensions. In the rolled up dimensions ALL particles would be contiguous and therefore capable of virtually instantaneous communication with one another.

  • jobless

    Ahh, but yes instant communication is possible using certain variables. With the right signature and the process of decay being a constant one could rig two devices which could communicate actual data faster than light. Distance would not be a factor. But no, that would only prove Einstein wrong when he said nothing could go faster than light so we can’t do it.

  • http://www.edscuola.it/lre.html paolo manzelli

    Entanglement Age
    Contemporarily emerging culture from Quantum Entanglement.
    View on facebook groups : Entanglement. http://it-it.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_124412900950948
    Paolo Manzelli ; LRE@UNIFI.IT : http://www.edscuola.it/lre.html ; http://www.wbabin.net

    Yin-Yang entangled colours overposition

    When two quantum systems (electrons, photons of light , phonons of the sound, etc …) interpenetrate each other (Entangled Systems) is determined a new state that presents new synergies changing the quality of the physical systems involved. “Entangled Systems” in fact do not behave as isolated systems, but as complex sets showing simultaneity of information .

    Therefore, in the presence of entanglement, a change made on one part of a coupled systemm instantly determines a change in the state of the other side of the other system. This simultaneity of information appears inconsistent with the conceptions of “mechanics” of physics, all based on localized single systems and also appears to undermine the principle of the constancy of the speed of light that does not allow the simultaneity of events, except as the case of a random situation.

    Therefore, to undestand “Entangled Systems”, starting from that show the experiment of Alain Aspect (1982) , become a need to accept the evidence of an at distance “synchronized behavior” , that have been excluded for more than a century from the traditional science only for academic interest, because such synchronism gave rise to an embarrassing paradoxical situation that led scientific accademy to not being able to avoid the obvious conclusion that “quantum mechanics” was an incomplete theory of particle physics. (1)

    Syncronicity between up/down entangled hand’s motion

    In fact, under the usual setting of Quantum Mechanics’s the admissione of the simultaneous correlation of information, would correspond to exceed the Heisenberg Uncertainty postulate for all cases that can be obtained “Entangled Systems”.
    Entanglement is a the word used for the first time by Erwin Schroedinger (1926), and it is synonymous with the words “plot, intrigue, penetration, sharing, coupling”, and it brings with a key to understanding the science, to forecast a more complete development of contemporary scientific and technological knowledge, in order to create a different perspective of major theoretical and applicative investigations on nano-technologies, but also the “quantum entanglement” allow the opening of new solutions in the elaboration of quantum information and in many other innovative aspects of contemporarily science.
    Unfortunately, the academic science, as we recognize the history of ideas, often it is unable to overcome their conceptual limits. See e.g. a dialog on “What happens between darkness and light” (2)

    From the above dialog follows that the visible light emitted as photons from the sun, reaching its maximum speed when photons travelling in the space enrich a low density of interactions. In this condition photons become very close to the speed of light and they lose their “kinetic mass” (m = E/c2), therefore photons can be “entangled” forming a simultaneous field of information energy ( “photonic field” ) that behaves like a pure stationary waves oscillating in a large extension of the space.
    When such a “photonic field” interacts with the Earth’s atmosphere, stationary extended waves of simultaneously information, chrash , and the photonic field is decoded back into single photons travelling in the form of small particles.
    This dynamic of trasformation between single photons and the photonic field provides a plausible explanation as to why we effectively see almost at the same time the rising and setting sun on the horizon.

    Such an short interpretation involves a more complex theory on the space/time quantization based on four-vector transformation, tis theory that makes a plausible evolution of quantum relativity , which will give impetus to a new paradigm of science for the development of future society of shared knowledge.

    Picasso

    ENTANGLEMENT AND PHOTONIC’S WAVE FIELD
    The formation of a group discussion on the Entanglement on Facebook and its prospects for change by maans a systems of Entangled Minds now is open to all who wish to deepen the development of new ideas in science and art to reinvent the paradigm of contemporarily knowledge society.

    BIBLIO ON LINE
    (1)- – Science of Quality: http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/science_of_quality_1.htm
    (2)-: Sun light : http://www.edscuola.it/archivio/lre/sole.pdf

  • Vikrant singh Chauhan

    This is really something amzing…..if it really worked (which is not possible as we can’t intecept in the connection b/w entangled particles) then we can probably search for the limit of the universe,i.e how exactly is it big? by just sending half of the entangled system to a sufficient possible distance and then decoding the information it has at that point.

  • Steven Cinquegrana

    If I riddled you this, what would you say? “Given that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light and that two objects appear to exchange information instantaneously, what is the distance between them?”

    When you put it like this, the only logical answer is “There is ZERO distance between them.”

    This “Occam’s Razor” approach implies that there is possibly some lower dimension – I would call it the ‘Zeroth Dimension’ – where time exists without any spatial dimensions and wherein all matter occupies a single spatial point. This Zeroth Dimension would encapsulate the entire universe as we define it but would normally be undetectable to us apart from incongruences such as quantum entanglement’s ‘spooky action at a distance’.

    So many physicists seem obsessed with higher dimensions (eg String Theory). Why not look lower?

  • Rick

    The way I see it is that all you need is to measure two types of information being transferred. If this can be done then all the sender and receiver need to do is assign a 0 or a 1 to the information….simple binary code. As for the problem of reading the information couldn’t an indirect method of reading the particle’s information be used….sort of like looking at it’s shadow verses looking at it directly? Am I even Making sense?

  • http://www.sipi-bor.org James Dunn

    At some point, all the Earth and ourselves were part of the Sun. Electrons in a frenzy coming in contact with one another. The Big Bang being potentially even a more basic alignment of entanglement.

    So our brains are composed of similar compositions and arranged in similar composites of molecules, and neurons firing without hardly a random component.

    If one or more people’s brains have entangled particles throughout the subconcious; could entanglement provide for a mechanism of subtley influencing the timing of neuron pulses? A global consciousness and a subconscious connection.

    Princeton University has been researching the observable influence of global consciousness for many years. Might quantum entanglement be the basis of a shared conciousness?

  • http://www.sipi-bor.org James Dunn

    Assuming the Big Bang to be plausible. Would not entangled particles already exist connecting basically all matter everywhere?

    A particle would not need to be “sent” to the furthest reaches of the universe, there plausibly already exists entangled particles within the Earth somewhere that has an entangled connection with the furthest reaches of the Universe.

    Regarding “Vikrant”‘s assertion

  • Listen.

    Perhaps all entangled particles are joined together? Maybe we just can’t see them like that…Like 2 cogs, move one and the other moves. They have no distance between them.

  • http://otterthink.blogspot.com Russ Otter

    Science is the journey of truth, of knowledge, versus the faithful and wishfully defined hopes of the great questions of existence. Science trumps, mythology, ritual and superstition, but Science (Physics) will never complete its journey to know all. That would be an infinite disposition, which is not definable, forever and a day. I enjoy this subject matter of Time and Space which are Infinite, in other words, actually timeless and spaceless. However from a finite realm they are real and practical, save some quantum bridges to the infinite perhaps? I hope you view my website as I discuss these issues of “Superposition’s”, “Entanglement”, and Infinity in terms, that are factual mathematical truths. As mathematics proves that it breaks down in any attempt to understand infinity. Hence intuition, is injected time and time again, trying link the finite with the infinite. But it will never happen. Still they are networked together, as one does not exist without the other. Please review my website for some essays on this subject matter.

    Cheers, Russ and Thanks for this website…!

  • http://otterthink.blogspot.com Russ Otter

    PS… My website is http://otterthink.blogspot.com

    Russ Otter

  • Javier

    Here entanglement without math but telling the truth.
    In spanish

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hs1zv84fA3U

  • Ryan Fleming

    In the part talking about how a person could communicate across great distances the author says that the message would be “traveling back in time”. But wouldn’t this only be true in technicality? Because, yes it is traveling back in time, but only because it is instantaneous. I believe that perhaps it stops time, for itself, then it has an infinite amount of “Time” (for lack of a better word) to travel X distance. I don’t believe that the receiver would actual get the message before the information was sent therefore not messing up the space time continuum.

  • http://jamesbdunn2.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_3.html QESdunn

    @39d6d0cb7b80c0a98cee8469e4ebe81e:disqus

    Based on quantum causality and Quantum Entangled Singularities (QESdunn), anything “instantaneous” is in relativity, unrelated to the relationship of velocity (m/s or space/time).

    Not related to length or space, or not related to time, or not related to space or time.
    Space being mutually referencing non-evolving systems of causal quantum step-events. Time being mutually referencing evolving systems of causal quantum step-events. Space/Time being the recursive systems of causal quantum step-events that are moderated by systems of singularities.

    Two levels of singularities are immediately considered. Non-relativistic from which Relativistic (us) are built.

    So time is subjective and can be considered from many perspectives.

  • Bryan Sanctuary

    Quantum entanglement is a property of quantum mechanics but I do not believe it persists after particles have separated. Throughout history, Instant-action-at-a-distance has been repudiated. When something makes no sense, we should find a way to resolve it.

    If non-locality is nonphysical, I guess it means quantum mechanics is incomplete. I read a lot on blogs etc that express this sentiment, but little consensus about how to resolve it.

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